Guidelines

A Recommendation Approved by Chief Academic Officers March 2, 2004

Approved by the Coordinating Board's Committee on Transfer and Articulation (COTA) October 18, 2004

Four-Year Institutions

Dr. Avila Hendricks (co-chair) -- Lincoln University
Dr. Paula King -- Southeast Missouri State University
Dr. Tim Lewis -- University of Missouri-Columbia
Dr. Sue Vartuli -- University of Missouri-Kansas City
Dr. Susan Catapano -- University of Missouri-St. Louis
Ms. Bonnie Shiller -- University of Missouri-St. Louis

Two-Year Institutions

Dr. Julia Hampton (co-chair) -- Jefferson College
Ms. Patrcia Fields -- Mineral Area College
Ms. Lucile Martin -- Moberly Area Community College
Ms. Licia Watson -- Penn Valley Community College
Ms. Gwen Pennington -- St. Louis Community College – Forest Park

Independent Four-Year Institutions

Dr. Brenda Fyfe --Webster University
Dr. Daresa Voss -- William Jewell College

Ex-Officio Members

Dr. Dan Larson -- St. Charles Community College
Dr. Stephen Lehmkuhle -- University of Missouri System
Dr. Cleo Samudzi -- Missouri Department of Higher Education

I. The CBHE Statutory Responsibility

The CBHE has the statutory responsibility for the following:

The CBHE, through the staff of the Department of Higher Education (DHE), discharges these responsibilities primarily through data collection during systematic review of existing programs and the review of new proposals for academic programs, off-site delivery of existing programs, and for changes in existing programs. In the case of public institutions, the Coordinating Board approves or disapproves new academic program proposals. For independent institutions, the DHE receives proposals with or without comment. An initial analysis of Early Childhood Education certificate and degree programs offered at Missouri 's colleges and universities performed by the DHE academic affairs staff revealed some problems.

II. Analysis of Early Childhood Programs in the State

  1. The Problem of Lack of Consistent Standards of Expected Competencies >
    A closer examination of these programs shows a lack of consistency in nomenclature of program titles and degree designation across institutions. Program names such as Child Care, Child Development, Child Growth and Development, Child Care and Guidance, Child and Family Development, Early Childhood Education, Early Childhood, Child Development Associate, Childhood Education, Child Care Assistant, and Early Childhood Development are used without a clear sense of scope and/or expected proficiencies and competencies. There is also lack of consistency in degree nomenclature (the use of AA, AS, and AAS), and the use of terms such as "licensed", "certified", "teacher certification", and "certificate of proficiency" add further confusion.
  2. The Problem of Transfer and Articulation
    A student receiving a Certificate of Proficiency or an Associate of Applied Science (AAS) in a child care/child education-related program from a two-year institution is likely to have difficulty transferring these credits to a four-year institution. These educational experiences are viewed as designed for professionals whose primary responsibility and focus is "child care". They also tend to be viewed as "terminal" in a practical sense and differ in program content and required skills. However, many students later decide to transfer to four-year institutions. The difficulties in transfer and articulation of these programs with those at four-year institutions lie in the following areas;
    • the lack of clear definition of expected proficiencies by both the sending and receiving institutions, and
    • wide variation in course/program content among institutions.
    The Associates of Arts (AA) and the Associates of Science (AS) degrees have been the recognized transfer degrees for students planning to transfer and complete requirements for a baccalaureate degree at a four-year institution, and the Associate of Applied Science (AAS) as a terminal degree. However, it is increasingly evident that students completing AAS degrees are choosing to continue to baccalaureate degrees.

III. Recommended Guidelines

A. Process

In light of the challenges presented above, chief academic officers of public two- and four-year colleges and universities formed a committee to evaluate the data and make recommendations. This committee, the Early Childhood Education Programs Committee, worked with the DHE staff to develop a set of recommendations outlined in this draft document.

The primary resources used as guide by the committee were the standards and competencies developed by the National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC), the “ Core Competencies for Early Care and Education Professionals in Kansas and Missouri” published in Summer 2000, and the Missouri Standards for Teacher Education Programs (MoSTEP) developed by the Missouri Department of Elementary and Secondary Education (DESE) (see Appendix C for references). In developing recommendations, the following key concepts were taken into consideration;

B. Program Nomenclature

In developing a consistent nomenclature for early childhood professionals, the committee balanced appropriate recognition for the capacity of the role of the early childhood professional with appropriate recognition for the level of education achieved.

The following is recommended nomenclature for degree and program titles. Classification of Instructional Program (CIP) codes are also recommended as a further guide to a more standard description of the programs, as well as their scope ( see Appendix C for references of CIP codes).

i. Degree Title: Early Childhood Aide Credential, C0 (Single-Semester Credential)
Program Title: Child Development
Recommended CIP: 19.0706, 19.0708, 19.0709
Recommended Professional Titles: Early Childhood Aide

ii. Degree Title: Early Childhood Assistant Credential, C1 (One-Year Credential)
Program Title: Early Childhood or Child Development
Recommended CIP: 19.0706, 19.0708, 19.0709
Recommended Professional Titles: Early Childhood Assistant

iii. Degree Title: Associate of Arts (AA)
Program Title: General Studies (with emphasis in Early Childhood)
Recommended CIP: 24.0101, 24.0102, 24.0199
Recommended Professional Title: Associate Teacher

Comment: The Associate of Arts (AA) degree should not be associated with an area of specialization. The AA degree is designed as the statewide general studies transfer degree. This degree is structured for entry into the general range of baccalaureate degree programs offered by four-year colleges or universities. Students completing the AA degree will have completed a general education program that is consistent with the statewide general education policy, consisting of a minimum of 42 semester-hours of credit. Early childhood and education courses taken as part of an AA degree outside the general education program should be carefully chosen to ensure applicability to the baccalaureate graduation requirements for the early childhood and education program which the student intends to pursue at a four-year college or university (see Appendix C for reference to the CBHE Credit Transfer Policy). An example of program design using the AA degree is presented in Appendices A & B.

iv. Degree Title: Associate of Applied Sciences (AAS)
Program Title: Early Childhood Development
Recommended CIP: 19.0706, 19.0708, 19.0709
Recommended Professional Title: Associate Teacher

v. Degree Title: Associate of Science (AS)
(The degree title should not be used for Early Childhood programs.)

vi. Degree Title: Bachelor of Science/Bachelor of Arts (BS/BA)
Program Title: Child Development or Early Childhood Education
Recommended CIP: 19.0701, 19.0706, 19.0708, 19.0709, 19.0799, 13.1202, 13.1206, 13.1207, 13.1208, 13.1209, 13.1210, 13.1299
Recommended Professional Title: Resource & Referral Specialist, Child Care Business Owner, Assistant Director, PreK-3 Teacher (not in public schools)

vii. Degree Title: Bachelor of Science in Education (BSEd)
Program Title: Early Childhood Education
Recommended CIP: 13.1202, 13.1206, 13.1207, 13.1208, 13.1209, 13.1210, 13.1299
Recommended Professional Title: Resource & Referral Specialist, Child Care Business Owner, Assistant Director, PreK-3 Teacher (certification for public schools)

viii. Graduate Programs: The current nomenclature remains the same
Recommended Professional Title: Master Teacher, Center Director/Administrator, Consultant Educational Coordinator, Educator/Faculty, Researcher, Administrator, Policy Maker, Educator/Faculty, Instructor at a 4-year institution for undergraduates/graduates

C. Career/Professional Titles

The terms certified, certificate, or teacher certification should not be used regarding early childhood programs except in programs leading to teacher certification. Thus, the Single-Semester (C0) and One-Year (C1) programs in early care and education should not be referred to as certificates, but as credentials. The certificate of proficiency will be replaced with credential of proficiency to prevent confusion with teacher certification . The professional title PreK-3 Teacher should be reserved for individuals who have actually completed a four-year degree program. Utilizing the title Associate Teacher for individuals with two-year degrees will acknowledge individuals serving in the capacity of a teacher responsible for a group of children while reserving the title of PreK-3 Teacher for individuals who have actually completed a bachelor's degree program. The professional titles of Early Childhood Assistant (for individuals with 24-30 hours of college credit toward an early childhood program) and Early Childhood Aide (for individuals with less than 24 hours of college credit toward an early childhood program) accurately reflect the amount of preparation these individuals would have achieved at their respective benchmarks.

D. Educational and Career Pathways

The schematic in Figure-1 shows educational and career pathways in the profession. It is expected that, at the very minimum, early care and education credential/degree programs are not designed in isolation. While it is important to develop credential/degree programs in response to market demand, it is equally important to consider other program structures and expected competencies in order to maximize articulation. Furthermore, DHE will expect new program proposals in the field to show articulation agreements. Once these agreements are in place, an institution cannot change its program significantly without prior notification of all parties involved. The professional pathway shown in Figure-1 provides a conceptual framework for thinking about articulation and transferability of credit from one educational level to the next.

The Child Development Associate (CDA) Credential is a national credential awarded by the Council for Early Childhood Professional Recognition in Washington DC. The candidate for a CDA Credential may complete the required coursework from any setting such as a workshop, college or university, or a training program (see Appendix C for reference to CDA) . Each Missouri institution is free to decide how best to structure the CDA Credential requirements to fit into the framework proposed in Figure-1.

Regarding the baccalaureate level, there are two distinct pathways; one leads to teacher certification in the state of Missouri, and the other track leads to a bachelor's degree without teacher certification (for example, child development).

E. Elements of Successful Transfer and Articulation between a Two-year and a Four-year Programs

There are four major categories of students transferring from two-year institutions to four-year institutions; (1) those who have completed an AAS degree, (2) those who have completed an AA degree, (3) those who have completed only a 42-credit hour general education block, and (4) those with only a collection of course-work. The general strategies given below are intended to give guidance to institutions (as they design programs and articulation agreements), student advisors, and students. Although the procedures below may imply that the receiving four-year institution is a teacher education institution, it need not be so.

Students in categories (1) and (2) may benefit from bridge courses designed by the (receiving) four-year institution. The AAS transfer student (category 1) will be strong in the early childhood area, but will need more work in the general education area. The AA transfer student will be strong in general education, but may need work in the early childhood area. Bridge courses may be a viable alternative to address some of these needs.

1. For students who have completed an AAS degree in Early Childhood Development:

i. Students should apply and be admitted by the four-year institution. The application process will include taking all admission tests required (ACT/SAT). Some four-year institutions allow transfer in without the ACT/SAT tests if the student has been out of high school longer than 4 years and/or is transferring with at least 24 credit hours from a two-year college.

ii. The 18-24 credits of general education in the early care and education program from the two-year institution would transfer into the four-year institution if they meet the general education requirements for the early childhood education program. The child care and education courses will be reviewed as follows:

Figure-1

The Educational and Career Pathways in Early Childhood Education

iii. Students will complete the additional 22-24 credits of general education required in the teacher education program, and continue to take courses at the four-year institution to graduate.

2. For students who have completed the AA degree (with emphasis in Early Childhood/Development):

The 42-credit hour block is transferred to the four-year institution in accordance with state-level general education policy guidelines (see reference in Appendix C for CBHE Policy). Early childhood and education courses taken as part of an AA degree outside the general education program should be carefully chosen to ensure applicability to the baccalaureate graduation requirements for the early childhood and education program which the student intends to pursue at a four-year college or university. These courses will transfer in accordance with a specific articulation agreement between a two-year and a four-year institution.

3. For students who have completed only a 42-hour General Education block:

The 42-credit hour general education block is transferred to the four-year institution in accordance with state-level general education policy guidelines (see reference in Appendix C for CBHE Policy).

4. For students who have completed only a collection of coursework:

Determination of courses acceptable for transfer to the four-year institution is done on a course-by-course basis by the receiving four-year institution.

5. For students who have requested credit for experiential learning:

To offer credit through experiential learning, the receiving institution (or the institution offering such credit) must establish methods and standards of assessment.

"Assessing Experiential Learning for College Credit" (see reference in Appendix C) offers guidance on how this might be accomplished.

The COTA's Credit Transfer Policy has long been an important tool for ensuring the portability of credit as students transfer from one Missouri institution to another. Revisions to the Credit Transfer Policy were adopted by the board in 1998 and again in 2000. The revised policy is more student-centered, emphasizing the importance of having a fair, equitable, and predictable system of student transfer that is both sensitive to student needs and acknowledges differences in institutional mission.

Incorporated in the revised policy is a 42-hour block of general education credit based on competencies associated with four skill and four knowledge areas. By policy definition, each 42-hour block of credit is deemed equivalent at all participating institutions. Participating institutions have posted (on the DHE website) curricular designs and assessment plans, illustrating the alignment of their general education program with statewide guidelines. Students transferring to non-compliant institutions will have their credits evaluated on a course-by-course basis. As outlined in the policy, students and institutions (both sending and receiving) have the right to appeal to the CBHE when they believe a transfer practice, procedure, requirement, or policy is not in accord with the principles or spirit of the statewide transfer guidelines.

Previously in Missouri, general education transfer was based on seat-time and credit-hour production, relying on course titles and descriptions to navigate the transferability of general education credit from one institution to another. The new competency-based system promotes general education reform, ensures better alignment between pre-K–12 and higher education, and encourages better preparation and performance of students.

APPENDIX A

Associate of Arts (AA) Degree to Bachelor of Science in Education (BSED) Degree

Purpose: The Project Access curriculum is designed for persons who plan to complete an Associate of Arts degree at Jefferson College and then transfer to Southeast Missouri State University 's Project Access program on the Jefferson College campus. Project access brings all the junior year to Jefferson College (see italics below), and requires 14 hours of resident work on the campus of Southeast Missouri State University (usually one semester of the senior year). The AA degree fulfills the lower division University Studies requirement. Students who complete this degree will be certified to teach birth to third grade in Missouri 's public schools.

JEFFERSON COLLEGE

FIRST YEAR
FALL SEMESTER
SPRING SEMESTER
ENG 101 English Composition I - 3
PHY 101 Physical Science - 5
EDU 100 Introduction to Teaching - 3
ECE 102 Introduction to Teaching Early Childhood - 4
JC Humanity 3 JC Computer Literacy - 1
Total - 17
ENG 102 English composition II - 3
PSY 101 General Psychology - 3
ECE 201 Early Childhood Lab - 2
BS 118 Introduction to Process
Science - 1
ECE 108 Infant/Toddler Care - 3
HST 109 American Culture - 5
Total - 17
Take C-BASE Exam
SECOND YEAR
PSY 201 Child Development - 3
SPD 105 Oral Communications - 3
ART 101, 103, or 105 - 3
ECE 103 Child Health, Nutrition, &
Safety - 3
HPE 132 First Aid & CPR - 2-3
MTH 130 Structure of the Real No. System - 3
Total - 17-18
ECE 212 Family, School, Comm. Relations - 3
ENG 143 Literature for Children - 3
BIO 101 General Biology- 5
JC Humanities - 3
PSC 102 US/MO Constitution - 3
Total - 17
JC – Consult Jefferson College Advisor for courses that meet these area requirements.

SOUTHEAST MISSOURI STATE UNIVERSITY

THIRD YEAR
FALL SEMESTER
SPRING SEMESTER
EL 260 Block II Field Experience - 3
EL 261 Theories/Learning - 2
EL 262 Foundation of Reading - 3
EL 263 Foundation of Language Arts - 2
MA 318 Math for Elementary
Teachers II # - 3
UI 318 Earth Science - 3
EF 200 School & Society - 2
MU 356 Music Skills - 1
Total - 19
EL 350 Block III Field Experience - 3
EL 351 Tech. Science - 2
EL 352 Tech Social Studies - 1
EL 353 Tech Mathematics - 2
EL 354 Corrective Reading - 3

EL 355 Reading Study - 2
EX 390 Psych/Exceptional Child - 3
WP 003 75 Hour Writing Exam - 0
Total - 17
FOURTH YEAR
National Teacher's Exam (Praxis) - 0
CE 365 Screen Assess. Young Child - 2
CE 366 Devel. Curr. In Early Child Education - 4
CE 368 Early Child Field Experience - 1
PE 308 Perceptual Motor Development - 2
CE 330 Classroom Management - 2
UI 3xx University Studies # - 3
UI 4xx University Studies - 3
EM 102 Technology & Teacher's Role - 1
Total - 18
EF 400 Seminar in Educational Issues - 1
CE 433 St. Teach Early Childhood
(1st ) - 6
CE 434 St. Teach Early Childhood
(2 nd ) - 6
Total - 13
INTERVENING SUMMERS/CORREPOND/FIFTH YEAR
SOC 101 General Sociology - 3
EX 302 Language Development of Exceptional Child - 2-3
ECO Any Economics courses # - 3
Total - 8-9

Total hours transferred from Jefferson College: 68-69. Total hours needed to complete BS in Early Childhood Education – Project Access: 75-78


APPENDIX B

Associate of Arts (AA) Degree to Bachelor of Science (BS) in Human Environmental Studies - Child Development Option

Purpose: This curriculum is designed for persons who plan to complete an Associate of Arts degree (AA) at Jefferson College and then transfer to Southeast Missouri State University to complete a Bachelor of Science (BS) in Human Environmental Studies. This degree prepares students for the following types of employment: preschool/daycare director, teacher, aide or assistant, parent educator, licensing examiner for preschool/daycare, child life specialist, information services, political lobbyist, consultant to business or corporation, and marketing children's toys or products. The AA degree fulfills the lower division University Studies requirement. Courses with asterisks are requirements of the Bachelor of Science in Human Environmental Studies.

JEFFERSON COLLEGE

FIRST YEAR
FALL SEMESTER SPRING SEMESTER
ENG 101 English Composition I - 3
JC Physical Science - 3
MTH Mathematics to Teaching - 3
JC Biological Science - 5
*ECE 102 Introduction to Early Childhood Education - 4
Total - 18
ENG 102 English composition II - 3
JC Humanities - 3
JC Physical Science - 3
*ECE 201 Early Childhood Education
Lab - 2
PSY 101 General Psychology - 3
Total - 14
SECOND YEAR
*JC Humanities - 3
JC Physical Education & Health - 1
PSC Constitution Requirement - 3
*ECE 202/210 Early Childhood
Education - 5
PSY 201 Child Development - 3
Total - 15
JC Physical Education & Health - 1
JC Humanities - 3
*ECE 212 Family School/Communication - 3
*ECE 103 Child Health, Nutrition &
Safety - 3
*ECE 107 School Age Child Care - 3
*ECE 108 Infant/Toddler - 3
Total - 16
JC – Consult Jefferson College Advisor for courses that meet these area requirements.

SOUTHEAST MISSOURI STATE UNIVERSITY

THIRD YEAR
FALL SEMESTER SPRING SEMESTER
CF 102 Personal & Family Relations - 2
CF 200 Guiding Alternatives - 3
EX 200 Introduction to Exceptional
Child - 3
UI .3xx University Studies - 3
Electives - 5
Total - 16
CF 300/301 Working with Parents - 3
CF Electives 6 UI 3xx University
Studies 3 Electives - 3
WP 003 75 Hour Writing Exam - 0
Total - 15
FOURTH YEAR
CF 403 Child & Family Practicum - 3
CF 430 Parent Child Interactions - 3
CF Electives 3 Electives - 6
Total - 18
CF 501 Preschool Practicum - 3
CF 512 Utilizing Family/Comm. Resources - 3
UI 4xx University Studies - 3
Electives - 4
Total - 13

Total hours transferred from Jefferson College: 65
Total hours needed to complete Bachelor of Science in Human Environmental Studies with Child Development option: 59


APPENDIX C
Resources and References

1. National Association for the Education of Young Children (NAEYC): http://www.naeyc.org/

2. Missouri Standards for Teacher Education Programs (MoSTEP): http://www.dese.state.mo.us/divteachqual/teached/standards.htm

3. Core Competencies for Early Care and Education Professionals in Kansas and Missouri can be obtained from:

a. Opportunities in a Professional Education Network Initiative in Missouri (OPEN)

OPEN Initiative
Center for Family Policy and Research/University Outreach and Extension
University of Missouri-Columbia
3 Gentry Hall
Columbia, MO 65211
Telephone: (877) 782-0185

b. Professional Development Initiative for Early Care and Education in Kansas (PDI)

Kansas Association of Child Care Resource and Referral Agencies
P.O. Box 2294
Salina, KS 67402
Telephone: (877) 678-2548

c. Greater Kansas City Careers in Early Childhood Care and Education

Metropolitan Council on Child Care, Mid-America Regional Council
600 Broadway, 300 Rivergate Center
Kansas City, MO 64105
Telephone: (816) 474-4240

4. The CBHE credit transfer policy "Credit Transfer: Guidelines for Student Transfer and Articulation Among Missouri Colleges and Universities" located on the CBHE website: www.dhe.mo.us.

5. The Child Development Associate (CDA) Credential: http://www.cdacouncil.org/

6. Classification of Instructional Programs (CIP), 2000 Edition:
http://nces.ed.gov/pubsearch/pubsinfo.asp?pubid=2002165 or http://nces.ed.gov/pubs2002/2002165_2.pdf

7. Fyfe, B. (1994). Assessing experiential learning for college credit. In J. Johnson & J.B. McCracken (Eds.), The Early Childhood Career Lattice: Perspectives on Professional Development. Washington, D.C.: NAEYC.